Ear,Nose,Throat and Thyroid Surgery




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Chapter 10 : Ear, Nose, Throat and Thyroid Surgery



Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery arrow_upward


  • Ear, nose, and throat surgery is the surgical treatment of diseases, injuries, or deformations of the ears, nose, and throat areas.
  • ENT Surgery includes:
    • Removal of bone in the Middle Ear.
    • Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.
    • Removal of tonsils.

    Removal of bone in the Middle Ear arrow_upward


  • Removal of all or part of a bone in the middle ear (called the stapes) is known as Stapedectomy.
  • Stapedectomy is a surgical procedure in which the innermost bone (stapes) of the middle ear is removed, and replaced with a small plastic tube surrounding a short length of stainless steel wire.

  • Surgery

  • During a Stapedectomy
    • An incision is made in the skin of the ear canal, the skin and eardrum are lifted to expose the stapes bone, and the stapes bone is removed.
    • An incision is made above the ear and the tissue is removed.
    • The tissue is used to cover the opening created by the stapes bone removal.

    • Prosthesis has put in place where the stapes bone had been and the eardrum and skin of the ear canal are laid back in place.
    • The ear canal is then packed.



    Risks

  • Following are the risks associated:
    • Hearing loss
    • Dizziness
    • Taste abnormalities
    • Noises in the ear

    Endoscopic Sinus Surgery arrow_upward


  • Sinuses are air-filled spaces in the bones of the face and head.
  • They are connected to the inside of the nose through small openings.
  • Sinusitis is a condition in which the sinuses swell and become clogged, causing pain and impaired breathing.
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure used to remove blockages in the sinuses.
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure designed to increase the amount of air flowing through the sinuses and allow mucus to drain properly out of the nose.
  • The procedure can:
    • Relieve nasal blockages.
    • Relieve facial pain.
    • Improve breathing.
    • Improve the sense of smell and taste.


    Surgery

  • A thin, lighted instrument called an endoscope is inserted into the nose.
  • The endoscope beams light into different parts of the nose and sinuses allowing the surgeon to see what is causing blockages.
  • Surgical instruments can be used along with the endoscope to remove the blockages and improve breathing.

  • Removal of Tonsils arrow_upward


  • The tonsils are the part of the lymphatic system and protect from infection by trapping germs that may enter through nose or mouth.
  • A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the tonsils in the back of the throat.
  • The tonsillectomy procedure is often combined with an adenoidectomy, which is the removal of an additional set of glands that are also in the throat.

  • Surgery

  • Removal of either the tonsils or the adenoids requires a general anesthesia.
  • The mouth is held open to expose the tonsils.
  • The tonsils are grasped with clamps and pulled toward the middle of the mouth.
  • The tonsils are removed by gentle dissection of the surrounding tissues.
  • Bleeding is controlled, once the tonsils and potentially the adenoids are removed.

  • Thyroid Surgery arrow_upward


  • A thyroid disease is a medical condition impairing the function of the thyroid.
  • Some medical problems may require removal of all or part of the thyroid gland that are:
    • Overactive Thyroid Gland (Hyperthyroidism).
    • Diffuse enlargement of the thyroid (Goiter).
    • Thyroid cancer.

    Overactive Thyroid Gland (Hyperthyroidism) arrow_upward


  • Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland becomes overactive and secretes excessive amounts of the hormone thyroxin.

  • Treatment

  • Removal of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) is rarely used to treat hyperthyroidism.
  • An anti-thyroid drug which works to decrease the amount of hormone is preferably used.
  • Radioactive iodine treatment involves taking a radioactive form of iodine that causes the permanent destruction of the thyroid.

  • Diffuse Enlargement of the Thyroid (Goiter) arrow_upward


  • Goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland which leads to difficulty breathing and/or swallowing.
  • The thyroid can be enlarged due to generalized enlargement of the thyroid or nodules within the thyroid.

  • Signs and Symptoms

  • Many symptoms include:
    • A swelling, ranging in size from a small nodule to a massive lump.
    • A feeling of tightness in the throat area.
    • Difficulty breathing.
    • Difficulty swallowing.
    • Hoarseness.
    • Neck vein distention.
    • Dizziness.

    Treatment

  • Treatment options depend on the size of the enlargement, symptoms, and the underlying cause.
  • Treatments typically include:
    • Radioactive iodine to shrink the gland, particularly if thyroid is producing thyroid hormone.
    • Small doses of potassium iodine solution if the goiter occurs due to iodine deficiency.
    • Surgery is reserved for the following situations:
    • Large goiters with compression.
    • Malignancy.
    • When other forms of therapy are not practical or ineffective.

    Thyroid Cancer arrow_upward


  • Thyroid cancer is a disease when abnormal cells begin to grow in thyroid gland.

  • Signs and Symptoms

  • Symptoms include:
    • A lump or nodule in front of the neck.
    • Hoarseness or difficulty speaking in a normal voice.
    • Swollen lymph nodes.
    • Difficulty swallowing or breathing.
    • Pain in the throat or neck.

    Treatment

  • Removing all or most of the thyroid (Thyroidectomy).
    • Surgery to remove the entire thyroid is the most common treatment for thyroid cancer.
  • Removing lymph nodes in the neck.
    • When removing thyroid, the surgeon may also remove enlarged lymph nodes from the neck and test them for cancer cells.

    Thyroidectomy arrow_upward


  • Thyroidectomy is used to treat thyroid disorders, such as:
    • Noncancerous Enlargement of the Thyroid (Goiter)
    • Overactive Thyroid (Hyperthyroidism)
    • Thyroid Cancer
  • Thyroidectomy includes following steps:
    • The operation will be performed under general anesthesia.
    • A cut is made across the front of your neck.
    • Some or the entire thyroid is taken out.
    • Great care is taken to avoid damaging the nerves that control voice.
    • The surgeon also avoids the nearby glands (parathyroid glands) that control blood calcium salts.


    Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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