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Chapter 10 : Personality

Personality arrow_upward

  • Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.
  • Personality is the entire mental organization of a human being at any stage of his or her development.
  • Personality is expressed through its influences on the body, in conscious mental life, and through the individual's social behavior.

    Characteristics of Personality arrow_upward

  • Personality is consistent: People act in the same or similar ways in a variety of situations.
  • Personality is a psychological construct, but it is also influenced by biological processes and needs.
  • Personality does not only influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.
  • Personality is expressed in multiple ways: Our personalities can be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions.

  • The Trait Approach arrow_upward

  • Personality traits are characteristic behaviors and feelings that are consistent and long lasting.
  • The personality traits used in the 5 factor model are:

  • Personality Trait


    Openness to experience

  • Imagination
  • Artistic Interests
  • Emotionality
  • Adventurousness
  • Intellect
  • Liberalism
  • Conscientiousness

  • Self-Efficacy
  • Orderliness
  • Dutifulness
  • Achievement-Striving
  • Self-Discipline
  • Cautiousness
  • Extraversion

  • Friendliness
  • Gregariousness
  • Assertiveness
  • Activity Level
  • Excitement-Seeking
  • Cheerfulness
  • Agreeableness

  • Trust
  • Morality
  • Altruism
  • Cooperation
  • Modesty
  • Sympathy
  • Neuroticism

  • Anxiety
  • Anger
  • Depression
  • Self-Consciousness
  • Immoderation
  • Vulnerability

  • Psychodynamic Approach arrow_upward

  • The psychodynamic approach was originally developed by Sigmund Freud.
  • The main assumption of the psychodynamic approach is that all behavior can be explained in terms of the inner conflicts of the mind.
  • Many psychologists have proposed theories that try to explain the origins of personality.
    • Psychosexual Theory of the Structure of Personality.
    • Analytic Psychology.

    Psychosexual Theory of the Structure of Personality arrow_upward

  • Freud proposed that the adult personality has three parts:

  • The Id

  • The basic pleasure related desires we are born with.
  • Ego

  • Develops later and controls the desires of the id.
  • Superego

  • The moralistic part of personality which develops as a child interacts with significant others such as its parents.

  • It is the role of the ego to maintain a balance between the id and the superego.

  • Defense Mechanisms

  • Defense mechanisms are strategies that are used to protect the ego from an imaginary threat.
  • They are unconscious tactics used by the ego to protect against anxiety and guilt by preventing material from surfacing.
  • The Eight Defense Mechanisms are:
    • Repression
    • Projection
    • Denial
    • Rationalization
    • Regression
    • Reaction Formation
    • Displacement
    • Sublimation

    Analytic Psychology arrow_upward

  • Freud believed that most mental processes are unconscious.
  • He proposed that people have three levels of awareness:
    • The conscious contains information that we are aware of and have easy access to at any given time.
    • The pre-conscious holds on to information until it is decided if it is threatening to conscious thought.
    • The unconscious holds all the information that the conscious cannot deal with but that influences every aspect of our day-to-day lives.

    The Humanistic Approach arrow_upward

  • Humanism is a philosophical movement that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the centrality of human values.
  • Theories proposed in the humanistic approach are:
    • Abraham Maslow’s Theory
    • Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory

    Abraham Maslow’s Theory arrow_upward

  • The highest rung on Abraham Maslow’s ladder of human motives is the need for self-actualization.
  • Maslow said that human beings strive for self-actualization, or realization of their full potential, once they have satisfied their more basic needs.

  • Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Theory arrow_upward

  • In Rogers’ view, the self-concept is the most important feature of personality.
  • Rogers used the term incongruence to refer to the discrepancy between the self-concept and reality.
  • Congruence, on the other hand, exists when there is a fairly accurate match between the self-concept and reality.

  • Behavioral Approach arrow_upward

  • Behavioral approach proponents believe that behavior is a function of environmental factors and learning.
  • It includes:
    • B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
    • Social Cognitive Theory

    B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning arrow_upward

  • B.F. Skinner believed that what most people referred to as personality was simply a person's distinct behavior pattern that emerged in specific situations.
  • He believed that the environment determines behavior.

  • Social Cognitive Theory arrow_upward

  • Alfred Bandura proposed the social cognitive theory.
  • He believes that learning involves not only connections between stimuli and responses but also cognitive representation and rearrangement.

  • The Biological Foundation of Behavior arrow_upward

  • The focus of Biological Psychology is the brain and nervous system.
  • It is a field of psychology that connects behavior and mental processes to bodily processes, and to the functions and actions of the brain.
  • The brain is a complex, versatile, and flexible network that controls behavior and mental processes.
  • The nervous system plays an important role in the behavior of an individual:
    • The nervous system carries orders from the brain and spinal cord to various glands and muscles.
    • It also carries signals from stimuli receptors to the spinal cord and brain.

    Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

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