The psychodynamic approach was originally developed by Sigmund Freud.
The main assumption of the psychodynamic approach is that all behavior can be explained in terms of the inner conflicts of the mind.
Many psychologists have proposed theories that try to explain the origins of personality.
Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.
Topics covered in this snack-sized chapter:
Personality is the entire mental organization of a human being at any stage of his or her development.
Personality is expressed through its influences on the body, in conscious mental life, and through the individual's social behavior.
Personality is consistent: People act in the same or similar ways in a variety of situations.
Personality is a psychological construct, but it is also influenced by biological processes and needs.
Personality does not only influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.
Personality is expressed in multiple ways: Our personalities can be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions.
Personality traits are characteristic behaviors and feelings that are consistent and long lasting.
The personality traits used in the 5 factor model are:
Openness to experience
- Psychosexual Theory of the Structure of Personality.
Freud proposed that the adult personality has three parts:
Psychosexual Theory of the Structure of Personality arrow_upward
It is the role of the ego to maintain a balance between the id and the superego.
| The basic pleasure related desires we are born with.
| Develops later and controls the desires of the id.
| The moralistic part of personality which develops as a child interacts with significant others such as its parents.
Defense mechanisms are strategies that are used to protect the ego from an imaginary threat.
They are unconscious tactics used by the ego to protect against anxiety and guilt by preventing material from surfacing.
The Eight Defense Mechanisms are:
Freud believed that most mental processes are unconscious.
He proposed that people have three levels of awareness:
- The conscious contains information that we are aware of and have easy access to at any given time.
- The pre-conscious holds on to information until it is decided if it is threatening to conscious thought.
Humanism is a philosophical movement that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the centrality of human values.
Theories proposed in the humanistic approach are:
- The unconscious holds all the information that the conscious cannot deal with but that influences every aspect of our day-to-day lives.
The highest rung on Abraham Maslow’s ladder of human motives is the need for self-actualization.
Maslow said that human beings strive for self-actualization, or realization of their full potential, once they have satisfied their more basic needs.
In Rogers’ view, the self-concept is the most important feature of personality.
Rogers used the term incongruence to refer to the discrepancy between the self-concept and reality.
Congruence, on the other hand, exists when there is a fairly accurate match between the self-concept and reality.
Behavioral approach proponents believe that behavior is a function of environmental factors and learning.
- Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory
B.F. Skinner believed that what most people referred to as personality was simply a person's distinct behavior pattern that emerged in specific situations.
He believed that the environment determines behavior.
Alfred Bandura proposed the social cognitive theory.
He believes that learning involves not only connections between stimuli and responses but also cognitive representation and rearrangement.
The focus of Biological Psychology is the brain and nervous system.
It is a field of psychology that connects behavior and mental processes to bodily processes, and to the functions and actions of the brain.
The brain is a complex, versatile, and flexible network that controls behavior and mental processes.
The nervous system plays an important role in the behavior of an individual:
- B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
- The nervous system carries orders from the brain and spinal cord to various glands and muscles.
- It also carries signals from stimuli receptors to the spinal cord and brain.