Introduction to Psychology

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Chapter 1 : Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology arrow_upward

  • Psychology is the study of human behavior, emotions, and mental processes through scientific investigation.
  • The picture below denotes the symbol of Psychology
  • The term "Psychology" is derived from two Greek words:
    • Psyche (spirit or soul)
    • Logos (science or study)
  • Psychology is about understanding people and their minds
  • Psychology is a key science in the study of the mind because it involves understanding how perception governs behavior
  • Psychology is a systematic approach to the understanding the thoughts, emotions and behavior of people
  • The following factors, shown below, influence human behavior:
  • The study of psychology is especially relevant to the areas of:
    • Self-Awareness
    • Social Awareness
    • Communication
    • Marketing
    • Personal Development

    Goals of Psychology arrow_upward

  • The primary goals of psychology are:
    • To describe human behavior.
    • To predict human behavior.
    • To explain human behavior.
    • To change the behaviors and experiences of others.
    • To help others make sound decisions.

    What is a Psychologist? arrow_upward

  • Psychologists study the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social aspects of behavior.
  • Psychologists help to ensure the health and well-being of all people.
  • They conduct laboratory experiments and perform:
    • Intelligence Tests
    • Performance Tests
    • Personality Tests
    • Aptitude Tests
  • Psychologists obtain information through:
    • Surveys
    • Questionnaires
    • Interviews
    • Observation
    • Clinical studies

    Branches of Psychology arrow_upward

  • Studying psychology leads to a better understanding of individual behaviors and, more importantly, community behaviors.
  • There is a wide range of branches in psychology:
    • Social Psychology
    • Clinical Psychology
    • Cognitive Psychology
    • Abnormal Psychology
    • Educational Psychology
    • Developmental Psychology
    • Personality Psychology
    • Behavioral Psychology

    Social Psychology arrow_upward

  • Social Psychology is the study of human interaction, including:
    • Communication
    • Cooperation
    • Competition
    • Leadership
    • Attitude Development
  • The thoughts, feelings and behaviors of individuals, when in the company of other people, are often studied to determine the influence they have on the individual’s nature.

  • Clinical Psychology arrow_upward

  • Clinical Psychology is a treatment oriented branch of psychology which uses scientific methods to handle psychological problems
  • Psychological assessment and psychotherapy are treatment methods used in this branch of psychology.
  • Clinical psychology combines both the practical and theoretical aspects of psychology to develop a strong prognosis.

  • Cognitive Psychology arrow_upward

  • Cognitive Psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the internal mental processes of thought such as:
    • Visual Processing
    • Memory
    • Problem Solving
    • Language
  • Cognitive psychology deals with perception and the problem solving capabilities of the brain.

  • Abnormal Psychology arrow_upward

  • Abnormal Psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the abnormalities in a person’s behavior and psyche.

  • Educational Psychology arrow_upward

  • Educational Psychology is the psychological study of learning within various educational situations.
  • Educational psychology seeks to understand how students learn and how they develop.

  • Developmental Psychology arrow_upward

  • Developmental Psychology is a subfield within psychology which focuses on the study of age-based behavioral changes.
  • Developmental psychology is concerned with describing and understanding how individuals grow and change over their lifetimes.

  • Personality Psychology arrow_upward

  • Personality Psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with the IQ and personality of an individual.
  • Individuals studying Personality Psychology attempt to answer questions such as:
    • What makes a person unique and different from others?
    • What personality traits are common across different people?
  • Studying an individual's personality can help a psychologist determine unique traits that may influence his or her behaviors in certain situations. Personality traits include:
    • Extraversion
    • Optimism
    • High self-esteem

    Behavioral Psychology arrow_upward

  • Behavioral Psychology is the study of mental processes and human behavioral patterns.
  • It is concerned with the mental processes and the behavioral patterns of humans as well as non-human subjects.
  • Behavioral Psychology involves the study of an individual’s behavior, which is used to gauge the psychological state of that individual.

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