Substance Related Disorders

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Chapter 3 : Substance-Related Disorders

Substance-Related Disorders arrow_upward

  • A substance can be anything that is ingested in order to produce a high, alter one's senses, or otherwise affect functioning.
  • Substance-related disorders are:
    • Disorders of intoxication
    • Dependence
    • Abuse
    • Substance withdrawal caused by various substances
  • Substance related disorders are divided into two categories:
    • Substance use disorders
    • Substance-induced disorders

    Substance Use Disorders arrow_upward

  • Substance use disorders include:
    • Substance abuse
    • Substance dependence

    Substance abuse

  • A pattern of substance use leading to significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning
  • Disrupts one’s education, job, or relationships with others, puts one in physically dangerous situations, or causes related legal problems

  • Substance dependence (addiction)

  • A state comprising cognitive, behavioral, and physiological features that together signify continued substance use despite significant substance-related problems
  • A more advanced pattern of use where a person abuses a drug and centers his or her life on it
  • People who suffer from substance dependence may experience:
    • Physiological dependence:
    • The person is physiologically dependent on the drug requires greater & greater amounts of the drug to experience the same effect (tolerance)
    • The person will respond physically in a negative way when the substance is no longer ingested (withdrawal)
    • Psychological dependence:
    • Occurs when the substance becomes such a central part of life that it plays a big role in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

    Substance Induced Disorders arrow_upward

  • Substance induced disorders include:
    • Substance intoxication: temporary behavioral or psychological changes due to substance accumulation
    • Substance withdrawal:  a syndrome specific to a substance develops when someone who has used it frequently and for a long time suddenly stops or markedly reduces its intake

    Types of Substance-Related Disorders arrow_upward

  • Following are the major types of substance-related disorders:
    • Alcohol-related disorders
    • Amphetamine-related disorders
    • Cannabis-related disorders
    • Cocaine-related disorders
    • Hallucinogen-related disorders
    • Inhalant-related disorders
    • Opioid-related disorders
    • Sedative-, hypnotic-, or anxiolytic-related disorders

    Alcohol-related disorders

  • Alcohol abuse is the repeated use of alcohol that results in daily living problems while alcohol dependence pairs these problems with a physical addiction.
  • Alcohol intoxication is characterized by slurred speech, lack of coordination, unsteady walking, and nystagmus (involuntary, rhythmic eyeball movement).
  • With continued drinking, alcohol depresses more areas of the brain, which impedes the ability to function properly.
  • Alcoholism impairs:
    • Motor coordination
    • Slows reaction time
    • Causes confusion
    • Reduces judgment
    • Negatively affects vision & hearing

    Amphetamine-related disorders

  • Amphetamine intoxication involves:
    • Affective blunting
    • Changes in sociability
    • Interpersonal sensitivity
    • Anxiety
    • Tension
    • Anger
    • Impaired judgment
    • Stereotyped behaviors
    • Impaired social or occupational functioning
  • Amphetamine stimulates the central nervous system by enhancing the activity of norepinephrine & dopamine.
  • Can produce toxic psychosis in the most mentally stable people and can cause death from over dosage

  • Cannabis-related disorders

  • Cannabis is used in the forms of marijuana and hashish, considered as the most illegal substances in the world.
  • Intoxication results in the intensified subjective perceptions, apathy, elation, dry mouth, increased appetite, redness of eyes.
  • Long–term use of marijuana may contribute to diseases such as lung cancer.

  • Cocaine-related disorders

  • Cocaine makes the heart beat more rapidly & irregularly, and can have fatal consequences, even with ingesting only moderate amounts.
  • Cocaine is highly addictive and enhances the activity of dopamine.

  • Hallucinogen-related disorders

  • Hallucinogens are a group of drugs that cause:
    • Changes in a person's thought processes
    • Perceptions of the physical world
    • Sense of time passing
  • Intoxication results in perceptual changes such as the subjective intensification of perceptions, depersonalization, hallucinations, dilated pupils, rapid heartbeat, sweating, and blurred vision.

  • Inhalant-related disorders

  • Inhalants are found in volatile solvents, making them available to breathe directly into the lungs.
  • Intoxication results in impaired social functioning, dizziness, nystagmus, lack of coordination, slurred speech.

  • Opioid-related disorders

  • Opioids include opium, heroin, morphine, codeine, and methadone.
  • Opioid depresses areas of the brain that reduce hunger, thirst, and sex drive.
  • Induce euphoria, drowsiness, & slowed breathing, and relieve pain

  • Sedative-, hypnotic-, or anxiolytic-related disorders

  • This class of drugs is most often abused because they create longer acting effect than alcohol.
  • Extremely addictive and used to relieve anxiety

  • Biological Treatment arrow_upward

  • Includes following therapies:
    • Agonist substitution: provides the person with a safe drug that has a chemical makeup similar to the addictive drug
    • Antagonistic treatment: blocking the effects of drugs so they no longer produce a pleasant experience
    • Aversive treatment: prescription of drugs that make ingesting the abused substances extremely unpleasant
    • Other treatments include usage of supportive medications or antidepressants

    Psychosocial Treatment arrow_upward

  • Includes following therapies:
    • Controlled use is at least as effective as abstinence
    • Community support programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and others are also beneficial
    • Group therapy and behavioral intervention are effective treatments

    Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

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