Nursing Theories and Research



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Chapter 2 : Nursing Theories and Research



Nursing Theories and Research arrow_upward


  • Theories are a set of interrelated concepts that give a systematic view of a phenomenon that is explanatory and predictive in nature
  • Nursing research is the term used to describe the evidence used to support nursing practice
  • Research is needed:
    • To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing treatment modalities
    • To determine the impact of nursing care on the health of the patients
    • To test out theory

    Purpose of Theory in Research arrow_upward


  • Following are the purposes of theory in research:
    • To identify meaningful and relevant areas for study
    • To propose plausible approaches to health problems
    • To develop or refine theories
    • To define the concepts and proposed relationships between concepts
    • To interpret research findings
    • To develop clinical practice protocols
    • To generate nursing diagnosis

    Common Concepts in Nursing Theories arrow_upward


  • Four common concepts common in nursing theory that influence and determine nursing practice are:
    • The person
    • Recipient of care
    • Individual, family, or community
    • The environment
    • All internal and external conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the person

    • Health
    • Degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person
    • Nursing: Actions, characteristics and attributes of person giving care

    Nursing Theories arrow_upward


  • Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to support nursing practice
  • Following are the important nursing theories:
    • Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory
    • Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations
    • Dorothy E.Johnson’s Behavioral system model

    Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory arrow_upward


  • The theory focuses on nursing and the patient environment relationship
  • It focuses on changing and manipulating the environment in order to put the patient in the best possible conditions for nature to act
  • Florence identified five environmental factors:
    • Fresh air
    • Pure water
    • Efficient drainage
    • Cleanliness and sanitation
    • Light (direct sunlight)
  • Deficiency in these factors produce illness or lack of health, but with a nurturing environment, the body could repair itself

  • Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations arrow_upward


  • Nursing is a maturing force and an educative instrument
  • The theory stressed the importance of nurses’ ability to understand own behavior to help others identify perceived difficulties
  • The four phases of nurse-patient relationships are:
    • Orientation
    • Identification
    • Exploitation
    • Resolution

    Orientation arrow_upward


  • This is a problem defining phase
  • Person seeks professional assistance from the nurse

  • Identification arrow_upward


  • Selection of appropriate professional assistance
  • Patient begins to have a feeling of belonging and a capability of dealing with the problem which decreases the feeling of helplessness and hopelessness

  • Exploitation arrow_upward


  • The nurse uses communication tools to offer the service to the patient
  • Nurse aids the patient in exploiting all avenues of help and progress is made
    towards the final step

  • Resolution arrow_upward


  • Termination of professional relationship
  • The patients’ needs have already been met by the collaborative effect of
    patient and nurse

  • Dorothy E. Johnson’s Behavioral System Model arrow_upward


  • According to the theory, Individuals maintain stability and balance through adjustments and adaptation to the forces that impinges them
  • Johnson’s work focused on the person as well as nursing
  • She identified the person as a system with:
    • Eight subsystems
    • Ingestion
    • Eliminative
    • Affiliation
    • Dependency
    • Sexual
    • Aggressive-protective
    • Achievement
    • Restorative
    • Four structural characteristics (assumptions)
    • Drive
    • Choices
    • Act
    • Observable behaviors
    • Three functional requirements
    • Protection
    • Nurturance
    • Stimulation
  • When one or more of the subsystems is in disequilibrium, the person reacts in a patterned, purposeful, repetitive ways

  • Nursing Research arrow_upward


  • Nursing research is defined as the application of scientific inquiry to the phenomena of concern to nursing
  • Scientific research is a systematic and objective attempt to provide answers to certain questions
  • Nursing research falls largely into two areas:
    • Quantitative Research
    • Qualitative Research

    Quantitative Research

  • This type of research focuses upon outcomes for clients that are measurable, generally using statistics

  • Qualitative Research

  • The research examines the experience of those receiving or delivering the nursing care, focusing, in particular, on the meaning that it holds for the individual

  • Evidence Based Practice (EBP) arrow_upward


  • Evidence Based Practice, is the use of the best clinical evidence in making patient care decisions and such evidence typically comes from research
  • Evidence based Practice helps in integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research
  • Evidence based Practice should give the clinician the tools to help her enhance clinical effectiveness and affect the delivery of healthcare

  • Five Steps to Perform EBP arrow_upward


  • Following steps should be followed to perform EBP:
    • Forming a clinical question
    • Searching for the Evidence
    • Critically appraise the evidence
    • Implementing the Evidence
    • Evaluating Process


    Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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