Nanotechnology and Medicine

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Chapter 7 : Nanotechnology and Medicine

Nano Medicine arrow_upward

  • Nano Medicine is the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level using engineered nano devices and nano structures.
  • Nano medicine is used at the molecular level for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues.

  • Why Nanotechnology in Medical Field?   arrow_upward

  • Nano Medicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.
  • The application of nanotechnology in the field of medical science has come under great attention in recent times.
  • There are many treatments today that take a lot of time and are expensive too.
  • Using nanotechnology, quicker and much cheaper treatments can be developed.

  • Application in Medical Science arrow_upward

    Drug delivery

    Nanobots and its uses
  • Nano Robotics is the technology of creating machines or robots called nanobot at or close to the microscopic scale of nanometers.
  • Nanobot can be used very effectively for drug delivery.
  • Before reaching the disease affected area, drug circulates in the entire body.
  • Using nanotechnology, we can use targeted drug to a precise location, which makes the drug more effective and reduces chances of side effects.
  • The figure below shows nanobot monitoring the sugar level in blood:
  • Drug delivery procedure
  • Drug carriers are injected near the diseased cells.
  • Mostly drug carriers are in m to nm scale.
  • Carriers functionalized with molecules specific to the receptors expressed on diseased cells.
  • Leads to very high specificity and low drug toxicity.

  • Disease diagnosis and prevention

    Diagnosis and Imaging
  • Nano biotech scientists have successfully produced microchips that are coated with human molecule.
  • The chip is designed to emit an electrical impulse signal when the molecules detect signs of disease.
  • Special sensor nanobot can be inserted into the blood under the skin where they check blood contents and warn of any possible disease.
  • Quantum dots
  • Quantum dots are nanomaterial (tiny droplet of free electrons) that glows with different hue that varies according to its size, when exposed to ultraviolet light.
  • Quantum dots are coated with different materials that will adhere to the surface of the materials.
  • The coated dots will then be injected into the cells grown in the petri dishes.
  • The dots will adhere to the materials and upon exposure to ultraviolet light, the dots with attached materials will glow.
  • The figure below shows quantum dots glowing with different hues when exposed to ultraviolet light:
  • Blood Testing
  • Nanotube plays a vital role in blood testing.
  • Nanotubes can easily be packed in a hair like capsule of the size of a splinter.
  • This capsule can be painlessly implanted under the skin.
  • Infrared light is then shined at the place of the implant.
  • A small handheld device is used to measure the intensity of the glow which is directly related to the amount of sugar in the blood.

  • Preventing disease

    Heart-attack prevention
  • Heart-attacks are caused by fat deposits blocking the blood vessels.
  • Nanobot can be made for removing these fat deposits.
  • The figure below shows nanobot removing the yellow fat deposits on the inner side of the blood vessels.
  • Frying tumors
  • Nano materials have also been investigated into treating cancer.
  • The therapy is based on “cooking tumors” principle.
  • Iron nanoparticles are taken as oral pills.  They attach to the tumor, and then a magnetic field is applied. This causes the nanoparticles to heat up and exactly cook the tumors from inside out.

  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

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