Project Scope Management



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Chapter 3 : Project Scope Management



3.1 Project Scope Management arrow_upward


  • The scope management plan details how the project scope will be defined, developed, and verified.
  • It clearly defines who is responsible for managing the project’s scope and acts as a guide for managing and controlling the scope.
  • Function of controlling a project in terms of its goals and objectives.
  • It essentially defines:
    • What is in the project scope?
    • What is not in the project scope?
  • The project scope management plan documents how the project scope will be defined, managed, controlled, verified and communicated to the project team and stakeholders/customers.
  • Scope = All the work involved in creating the product.
  • The term scope has two distinct uses:
    • Project Scope: The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
    • Product Scope: The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result.
  • Notice that the project scope is more work-oriented, while product scope is more oriented toward functional requirements.
  • Scope is variable during project cycle:
    • Delivering on a date can change scope.
    • Cost-cutting can change scope.


    3.2 Three Steps of Scope Management arrow_upward



  • Planning: Deciding how the scope will be defined, verified, and controlled.
  • Work Breakdown Structure: Subdividing the project into tasks and milestones.
  • Verification and Control: Acceptance of the scope and process to control scope.

  • Figure provides an overview of the Project Scope Management processes:
    • Plan Scope Management
    • Collect Requirements
    • Define Scope
    • Create WBS
    • Validate Scope
    • Control Scope
  • These processes interact with each other and with processes in other Knowledge Areas.

  • 3.3 Plan Scope Management arrow_upward


  • Plan Scope Management is the process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.
  • The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed throughout the project.
  • Includes the Project Charter, Preliminary Scope Statement, and Project Management Plan:
    • Title
    • Start and End dates
    • Team
    • Objectives
    • Budget
    • Roles and Responsibilities
    • Summary of Approach
    • Charter
    • Initial Scope Statement


    3.3.1 Plan Scope Management: Inputs

  • Project Management Plan: Approved subsidiary plans of the project management plan are used to create the scope management plan and influence the approach taken for planning scope and managing project scope.
  • Project Charter: The project charter is used to provide the project context needed to plan the scope management processes. It provides the high-level project description and product characteristics from the project statement of work.
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors: The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Scope Management process include, but are not limited to:
    • Organization’s culture
    • Infrastructure
    • Personnel administration
    • Marketplace conditions
  • Organizational Process Assets: The organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Scope Management process include, but are not limited to:
    • Policies and procedures, and
    • Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base

    3.3.2 Plan Scope Management: Tools and Techniques

  • Expert Judgment: Expert judgment refers to input received from knowledgeable and experienced parties. Expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training in developing scope management plans
  • Meetings: Project teams may attend project meetings to develop the scope management plan.

  • 3.3.3 Plan Scope Management: Outputs

  • Scope Management Plan: The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified.
  • Requirements Management Plan: The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.

  • 3.4 Collect Requirements arrow_upward


  • It is the process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.
  • The key benefit of this process is that it provides the basis for defining and managing the project scope including product scope.
  • The project’s success is directly influenced by active stakeholder involvement in the discovery and decomposition of needs into requirements and by the care taken in determining, documenting, and managing the requirements of the product, service, or result of the project.

  • 3.4.1 Collect Requirements: Inputs

  • Scope Management Plan: The scope management plan provides clarity as to how project teams will determine which type of requirements need to be collected for the project.
  • Requirements Management Plan: The requirements management plan provides the processes that will be used throughout the Collect Requirements process to define and document the stakeholder needs.
  • Stakeholder Management Plan: The stakeholder management plan is used to understand stakeholder communication requirements and the level of stakeholder engagement in order to assess and adapt to the level of stakeholder participation in requirements activities.
  • Project Charter: The project charter is used to provide the high-level description of the product, service, or result of the project so that detailed requirements can be developed.
  • Stakeholder Register: The stakeholder register is used to identify stakeholders who can provide information on the requirements.

  • 3.4.2 Collect Requirements: Tools and Techniques

  • Interviews: An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.
  • Focus Groups: Focus groups bring together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result.
  • Facilitated Workshops: Facilitated workshops are focused sessions that bring key stakeholders together to define product requirements.
  • Group Creativity Techniques: Several group activities can be organized to identify project and product requirements. Some of the group creativity techniques that can be used are:
    • Brainstorming
    • Nominal group technique
    • Idea/mind mapping
    • Affinity diagram
    • Multicriteria decision analysis
  • Questionnaires and Surveys: Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents.
  • Observations: Observations provide a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes
  • Prototypes: Prototyping is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.
  • Benchmarking: It involves comparing actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
  • Context Diagrams: The context diagram is an example of a scope model.
  • Document Analysis: Document analysis is used to elicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying information relevant to the requirements.

  • 3.4.3 Collect Requirements: Outputs

  • Requirements Documentation: Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project.
  • Requirements Traceability Matrix: The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
  •                            


    3.5 Define Scope arrow_upward


  • Define Scope is the process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.
  • The key benefit of this process is that it describes the project, service, or result boundaries by defining which of the requirements collected will be included in and excluded from the project scope.

  • 3.5.1 Define Scope: Inputs

  • Scope Management Plan: The scope management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the project scope.
  • Project Charter: The project charter provides the high-level project description and product characteristics. It also contains project approval requirements.
  • Requirements Documentation: This documentation will be used to select the requirements that will be included in the project.
  • Organizational Process Assets: Organizational process assets can influence how scope is defined

  • 3.5.2 Define Scope: Tools and Techniques

  • Expert Judgment: Expert judgment is often used to analyze the information needed to develop the project scope statement. Such judgment and expertise is applied to any technical detail.
  • Product Analysis: For projects that have a product as a deliverable, as opposed to a service or result, product analysis can be an effective tool. Each application area has one or more generally accepted methods for translating high-level product descriptions into tangible deliverables.
  • Alternatives Generation: Alternatives generation is a technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project
  • Facilitated Workshops: The participation of key players with a variety of expectations and/or fields of expertise in these intensive working sessions helps to reach a cross-functional and common understanding of the project objectives and its limits.

  • 3.5.3 Define Scope: Outputs

  • Project Scope Statement: The project scope statement is the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.
  • The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and product scope.
  • The detailed project scope statement, either directly, or by reference to other documents, includes the following:
    • Product scope description
    • Acceptance criteria
    • Deliverable
    • Project exclusion
    • Constraints
    • Assumptions
  • Project Documents Updates: Project documents that may be updated include, but are not limited to:
    • Stakeholder register
    • Requirements documentation
    • Requirements traceability matrix

    3.6 Create WBS arrow_upward


  • Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.

  • 3.6.1 Create WBS: Inputs

  • Scope Management Plan: The scope management plan specifies how to create the WBS from the detailed project scope statement and how the WBS will be maintained and approved.
  • Project Scope Statement: The project scope statement describes the work that will be performed and the work that is excluded. It also lists and describes the specific internal or external restrictions or limitations that may affect the execution of the project.
  • Requirements Documentation: Detailed requirements documentation is essential for understanding what needs to be produced as the result of the project and what needs to be done to deliver the project and its final products.
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors: Industry-specific WBS standards, relevant to the nature of the project, may serve as external reference sources for creation of the WBS.
  • Organizational Process Assets: The organizational process assets that can influence the Create WBS process include, but are not limited to:
    • Policies, procedures, and templates for the WBS
    • Project files from previous projects
    • Lessons learned from previous projects

    3.6.2 Create WBS: Tools and Techniques

  • Decomposition: Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
  • Expert Judgment: Expert judgment is often used to analyze the information needed to decompose the project deliverables down into smaller component parts in order to create an effective WBS.

  • 3.6.3 Create WBS: Outputs

  • Scope Baseline: The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.
  • It is a component of the project management plan.
  • Components of the scope baseline include:
    • Project scope statement
    • WBS
    • WBS dictionary
  • Project Documents Updates: Project documents that may be updated include, but are not limited to, requirements documentation, which may need to be updated to include approved changes.

  • 3.8 Validate Scope arrow_upward


  • Validate Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
  • The key benefit of this process is that it brings objectivity to the acceptance process and increases the chance of final product, service, or result acceptance by validating each deliverable.

  • 3.8.1 Validate Scope: Inputs

  • Project Management Plan: The project management plan contains the scope management plan and the scope baseline. The scope management plan specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained.
  • Requirements Documentation: The requirements documentation lists all the project, product, and other types of requirements for the project and product, along with their acceptance criteria.
  • Requirements Traceability Matrix: The requirements traceability matrix links requirements to their origin and tracks them throughout the project life cycle.
  • Verified Deliverables: Verified deliverables are project deliverables that are completed and checked for correctness through the Control Quality process.
  • Work Performance Data: Work performance data can include the degree of compliance with requirements, number of nonconformities, severity of the nonconformities, or the number of validation cycles performed in a period of time.

  • 3.8.2 Validate Scope: Tools and Techniques

  • Inspection: Inspection includes activities such as measuring, examining, and validating to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria.
  • Group Decision-Making Techniques: These techniques are used to reach a conclusion when the validation is performed by the project team and other stakeholders.

  • 3.8.3 Validate Scope: Outputs

  • Accepted Deliverables: Deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally signed off and approved by the customer or sponsor.
  • Change Requests: The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair.
  • Work Performance Information: Work performance information includes information about project progress, such as which deliverables have started, their progress, which deliverables have finished, or which have been accepted.
  • Project Documents Updates: Project documents that may be updated as a result of the Validate Scope process include any documents that define the product or report status on product completion.

  • 3.9 Control Scope arrow_upward


  • Focus on “change management”.
  • Influence the factors that cause scope changes.
  • Ensure changes are processed according to procedures developed as part of integrated change control.
  • Manage changes when they occur.
  • Monitor trends.


  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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