Heart Attack Introduction

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Chapter 1 : Heart Attack Introduction

Heart Diseases arrow_upward

A heart attack is a type of heart disease.

  • Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States.
  • It is preventable and controllable with diet and exercise.

A number of diseases can affect the heart, including:

  • Coronary artery diseases
  • Angina
  • Heart failure

In chronic heart illness, the coronary arteries (the vessels that supply oxygen-carrying blood to the heart) become narrow and hence are unable to carry a normal amount of blood.

  • The primary culprit is a process in which fatty deposits called plaque builds upon the inside wall of an artery.

Root Cause of Heart Diseases arrow_upward

Atherosclerosis- Fatty deposits of cholesterol.

Hypertension- A medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated.

Risk Factors arrow_upward


High cholesterol (especially LDL)


High fat diet

Lack of exercise







Coronary Artery Disease arrow_upward

Occurs when the coronary arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart become blocked.

  • Partial blockage causes angina.
  • Full blockage causes a myocardial infarction or a heart attack.

Angina Pectoris arrow_upward

Manifests as a heavy, squeezing pain in the centre of the chest.

A person who suffers from angina pectoris has coronary arteries that are wide enough to supply blood to the heart during normal activities, but too narrow to deliver sufficient blood and oxygen to the heart when extra work is required.

An attack of angina develops when the heart must work harder than normal and the muscle cells that make up the heart do not receive enough oxygen.

An attack of angina may last for several minutes and is often brought on by physical activity, emotional stress, cold weather, or digestion of a heavy meal; all of which are factors that can increase the heart’s workload.

Diabetes Mellitus arrow_upward

At any given cholesterol level, diabetic persons have a 2 or 3 times higher risk of heart disease.

Insulin is required to maintain adequate levels of lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme needed to break down bad cholesterols.

Heart Attack arrow_upward

Also known as a myocardial infarction.

Usually occurs when a blood clot forms inside a coronary artery.

The blood clot severely limits or completely cuts off blood flow to part of the heart.

The oxygen deprivation is severe and prolonged.

Heart muscle cells begin to die for lack of oxygen.

Heart Attack Symptoms arrow_upward

Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing pain, pain spreading to the shoulders, neck and arms.

Chest discomfort and light headedness.


Paleness or pallor.

Increased irregular heart rate.

Cholesterol arrow_upward

Serves a vital function in the body.

It is a component of the nerve tissue of the brain and spinal cord as well as other major organs.

Frequently measured to promote health and prevent diseases.

A major component of the plaque that clogs arteries.

Physical Inactivity arrow_upward

Increasing physical activity has been shown to decrease blood pressure.

Moderate to intense physical activity for 30-45 minutes on most days of the week is recommended.

Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases arrow_upward

Diet and Nutrition: There are several guidelines listed by the American Heart Association:

  • Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, which are naturally low in fat and high in vitamins and minerals.
  • Eat a variety of grain products.

Choose nonfat or low-fat products.

Use lean meats: Choose chicken, fish, turkey, and lean cuts of beef and pork.

Switch to fat-free milk: Gradually reduce the fat content of the milk you drink.

Choose fats with 2 grams or less of saturated fats per serving such as liquid and tub margarines, canola oil and olive oil.

Balance the number of calories you eat with the number of calories you use each day.

Maintain a level of physical activity that keeps you fit and matches the number of calories you eat.

Limit your intake of foods high in calories and low in nutrition, including foods like soft drinks and candy.

Eat less than 6 grams of salt a day.

Have no more than one alcoholic drink a day.

Benefits of Exercise arrow_upward

Reduces incidence of obesity.

Increases HDL.

Lowers LDL and total cholesterol.

Helps control diabetes and hypertension.

Those at high risk should take part in a specially supervised program.

Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

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