Plants Forms and Function

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Chapter 2 : Plants Forms and Function

Plants arrow_upward

  • Plants are one of the five big groups (kingdoms) of living things.
  • They are autotrophic eukaryote, which means they have complex cells, and make their own food.
  • Usually they cannot move (not counting growth).
  • Plants include familiar types such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae.
  • The scientific study of plants is known as botany

  • Functions of Stems, Roots and Leaves arrow_upward


    • Anchoring the plant to the ground
    • Extracting water and minerals from the soil

    There are three types of Roots:

  • Taproot
    • Taproot is large and fleshy in appearance.
    • Grows deep into the ground to search food
    • They are able to store food.
    • Carrots and Turnips are example of taproots.
  • Fibrous roots
    • They are close to the surface of the soil
    • Collect precipitation before it sinks deep into the ground,
    • Often found growing side by side with taproots: the two types of root combine efforts to maximize efficiency.
    • Usually found in wheat, rice, and banana plants etc.
  • Adventitious roots
    • Develop to help the plant to climb: for example, money plant
    • Help to develop modified underground stems, such as bulbs
    • Found in money plant, beans, and grape vines etc.


  • They support leaves and flowers physically.
  • Stems hold the leaves and flowers in the best position for food gathering and reproduction.
  • Using xylem and phloem to transport materials from areas of plenty to areas of need in various parts of the plant.
  • Xylem carries water through plants.
  • Phloem carries sugar to parts of plants
  • Storing nutrients for future use
  • The stem may be simple, branched, upright or creeping
  • It can form underground food storage organs.

  • Leaves

  • Sun’s rays are absorbed by leaves.
  • The majority of photosynthetic productions (which can take place in any green part of a plant) happen on leaves.
  • Leaves take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen and water vapor (breathing).
  • Waste products of plants are extracted through leaves.
  • Through osmotic pressure water goes up from the roots.

  • Respiration Process in Plants (Photosynthesis) arrow_upward

  • Photosynthesis is the process of changing water and carbon dioxide into sugar and releasing oxygen in the presence of sunlight.
  • It is also called as respiration of plants because carbon dioxide is taken in and oxygen is released which is life gas for us.
  • Photosynthesis is necessary as living beings depends on this process. Food and respiring oxygen both products are evolved by this process.
  • Photosynthesis process only occurs during day in presence of sunlight, at night plants release carbon dioxide and take oxygen.

  • Plant parts we eat arrow_upward

  • We eat almost every part of plants.
  • When we eat asparagus, we eat the stem of the plant.
  • When we eat spinach or lettuce, we are eating the plant’s leaves.
  • We eat the fruit of squash, cucumber and tomato plants.
  • When we eat corn or peas we are eating seeds.
  • Cauliflower and broccoli plants produce flowers we like to eat.
  • When we eat radish or carrot, we are eating roots.
  • Potatoes grow underground, but the part we eat is not a root. It is an underground stem called a tuber.
  • With some plants we eat more than one part.
  • We eat the root of the onion plant but can also eat the stems, for a milder flavor.
  • Some of the plants are poisonous too if we eat the wrong part. For example leaves of tomato plants are poisonous.

  • The Secret life of plants arrow_upward

  • Plants can’t move but they find a better way to reach the sun.
  • You never see plants responding but according to research it is proved that plants too can sense and feel.
  • Travelling of plants is actually seeds of plants that moves miles away from them.
  • Trees have the advantage of heights to send their seeds from one place to another.
  • Using sunshine, air, water and a few minerals, the leaves are, in effect, the "factories" that produce food.
  • To gain moisture, plants typically use their roots to probe underground
  • Pollen is the component needed for fertilization.
  • Most plants rely on animals to transport the pollen from the stigma of one to other.
  • To do this, they attract their couriers with color and scent.
  • It isn't just birds that help pollination: some mammals and reptiles also do so.
  • However, it is mostly insects that are recruited to carry out the task.
  • To ensure that pollen is not wasted by being delivered to the wrong flower, some species of plant have developed exclusive relationships with their visitors.

  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

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