Heat and Electricity



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Chapter 11 : Heat and Electricity



Heat Energy arrow_upward


  • A form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature.
  • Science defines heat as the flow of energy from a warm object to a cooler object
  • Energy decreases as heat passes from a warm body with higher temperature to a cold body with lower temperature.
  • Transfer of energy from one system to another by a difference of temperature.
  • It cannot be treated as a substance, because it may be transformed into something that is not a substance.

  • Heat Transfer arrow_upward


  • Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms:
    • Convection
    • Radiation
    • Conduction

    Convection

  • Convection is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids
  • Convection is usually the way of heat transfer in gases and liquids.

  • Radiation

  • Radiation is the generation of hot waves from substances whose temperature is greater than zero.
  • Thermal radiation includes the visible light and infrared light.
  • Example: Heat emitted by a light bulb.

  • Conduction

  • Conduction is the flow of heat from the body itself. It is intermolecular transfer of heat.
  • By conduction, as well as by radiation, heat flows from a body at a higher temperature to a body at a lower temperature.

  • Conductors and Insulators arrow_upward


  • Substances which allow heat and electricity to pass through them are Conductors.
  • Substances which don’t allow heat and electricity to pass through them are Insulators.
  • Metals are generally good conductor of heat and electricity. Nonmetals do not allow heat and electricity to pass through them.
  • Silver, Copper, Gold, Iron are best conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Some metals such as lead, aluminum are poor conductors of heat and electricity but they are not insulators.
  • Wood, Rubber, Plastic and glass are the best insulators. They do not pass electricity from them.
  • Melting and boiling of conductors are very high.
  • Melting point of insulators is very low.

  • Electrical Energy arrow_upward


  • Electricity is a form of energy produced by the movement of electrons.
  • “Electric energy" is energy derived from electricity.

  • Terms related to Electrical Energy arrow_upward


  • Electric current – A movement or flow of electrically charged particles
  • Electric field – An influence produced by an electric charge on other charges
  • Circuit – Closed path for electricity to flow from one place to another.
  • Electric potential – The capacity of an electric field to do work on an electric charge

  • Electric Current arrow_upward


  • Electric current is a flow of electric charge through a conductive medium.
  • Current is a rate of flow of negatively-charged particles, called electrons.
  • Direct Current
    • Electron flow is in one direction and at a constant rate.
  • Alternating Current
    • Electron flow changes direction in regular, repeated cycles.
  • Voltage - Potential difference across two terminals in a circuit “across variable.”

  • Batteries and Generators arrow_upward


  • We can’t always generate electricity when it is needed so Batteries are devices that store electrical energy in chemical form and are very important.
  • When we connect batteries with any electrical thing circuit completes and electricity starts flowing.
  • As we know energy can change from one form to another in batteries, chemical energy change into electrical energy.
  • In generators, mechanical energy changes into electrical energy.
  • Generators use kerosene, petrol and coal as fuel for changing mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  • Electromagnet arrow_upward


  • Magnets attract, or pull, some kinds of metal objects. Stronger magnets exert a greater pull on the objects they attract.
  • Sometimes it would be useful if you could "turn off" a magnet when you did not want it to attract objects. That is what an electromagnet can do.
  • Electric current can act like a magnet it attracts objects made of certain metals, such as iron.
  • When electric current flows through a wire, it generates a magnetic field.


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