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Chapter 16 : Energy

Energy arrow_upward

  • Energy is the ability of a physical system to do work.
  • The total energy of any object can be identified with its mass.
  • We use energy to do work and make all movements.
  • When we eat, our body transforms the food into energy.
  • There has been an enormous increase in the demand for energy since the middle of the last century as a result of industrial development and population growth.
  • Due to the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy have become important and relevant in today’s world.
  • Solar Energy, Geothermal Energy, Wind Energy, Biomass Energy etc. are some different sources of energy.

  • Forms of Energy arrow_upward

  • In the context of physical sciences, several forms of energy have been defined. These include:
    • Chemical Energy
    • Elastic energy
    • Nuclear energy
    • Thermal energy
    • Electrical Energy
    • Electromagnetic energy or Radiant energy
  • These forms of energy may be divided into two main groups:
    • Kinetic energy
    • Potential energy

    Potential energy arrow_upward

  • Potential energy is stored in a body and has potential to work.

  • Types of Potential Energy

  • Chemical Energy stored in things like the food we eat, fossil fuels and explosives.
  • Elastic energy stored in a stretched elastic band or spring, like rubber band.
  • Nuclear energy stored in the nucleus of atom. This energy is used in nuclear power stations to generate heat.
  • Thermal energy is the part of the total internal energy of a thermodynamic system or sample of matter that results in the system temperature

  • Kinetic energy arrow_upward

  • The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.
  • It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity.
  •  If someone kicks a ball hard and if it hits your body, it hurts, because your body has to suddenly absorb all that energy and stop the ball.

  • Types of Kinetic Energy

  • Electrical Energy: This is kinetic energy of moving charges like energy flowing through a light bulb.
  • Light and other radiation are called electromagnetic energy they are also form of kinetic energy.

  • Law of Conservation of Energy arrow_upward

    “Energy can be changed from one form to another but can’t be created or destroyed”

  • This law is followed everywhere in energy chain.
  • Like in simple light bulb electrical energy changes into light and heat energy.
  • Sun is the source of energy; all the living things get energy from the sun.

  • Solar energy arrow_upward

  • Energy we get from the sun is called solar energy.
  • All of our energy sources plants, animals, everything on our planet directly or indirectly takes energy from sun.
  • Solar energy is used to produce electricity.
  • Solar cells are used to store electricity produced from sun.
  • We are using solar energy for street lights.
  • There is an enormous usage of solar energy, as it is never going to end.
  • All our requirement of energy is fulfilled by sun.

  • Renewable Source of Energy arrow_upward

  • Energy sources which are not going to end by their usage are called renewable source of energy.
  • Renewable energy is captured from an energy resource that is replaced rapidly by a natural process
  • Like power generated from the sun or from the wind.
  • Currently, the most promising alternative energy sources include wind power, solar power, and hydroelectric power.
  • Other renewable sources include geothermal and ocean energies,
  • Biomass and ethanol are also used as renewable fuels.

    Renewable Energy: Wind

  • Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity
  • It increased exponentially due to significant breakthroughs in turbine technologies
  • Wind energy is a clean and renewable source of power.

  • Renewable Energy: Hydroelectric

  • Hydroelectric energy from water is possible due to the gravitational potential energy stored in water.
  • The principle is simple: the force of the water being released from the dam spins the blades of a turbine.
  • The turbine is connected to the generator that produces electricity.

  • Renewable Energy: Geothermal

  • Geothermal Energy relies on heat produced under the surface of the Earth.
  • Geothermal plants depend on steam to power turbines and generate electricity.
  • It is though the method of producing steam.

  • Nonrenewable Sources of Energy arrow_upward

  • Source of energy which is not going to replace or replace very slowly after we use are called nonrenewable source of energy.
  • Nonrenewable source has finite supply and it is used faster than it can replenish.
  • Fossil fuels and oil are examples of nonrenewable source of energy.

  • Nonrenewable energy source: Coal

  • Humans rely heavily on fossil fuels for a source of energy.
  • Fossil fuels and Oil are formed of dead plant vegetation that over many, many years came to be buried under layers of earth.
  • Coal is a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to create.
  • The energy in coal comes from the energy stored by plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago.

  • Nonrenewable energy source: Oil

  • Diesel is a petroleum fuel that contains energy.
  • At refineries, crude oil is separated into different fuels including gasoline, jet fuel/kerosene, lubricating oil, heating oil, and diesel.
  • Gasoline is a nonrenewable fuel made from petroleum.
  • Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water).
  • The entire petroleum product we use is made from refining this oil.

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