First Aid for Wounds



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Chapter 3 : First Aid for Wounds



First Aid for Wounds arrow_upward


  • A wound is a break in the continuity of a tissue of the body, either internal or external.
  • Wounds are classified as:
    •  Open Wound
    • An open wound is a break in the skin or in a mucous membrane.
    • Closed Wound
    • A closed wound involves underlying tissues without a break in the skin or a mucous membrane.

    Open Wounds arrow_upward


  • A break in the skin or mucous membrane; or the protective layer is damage.

  • Classification of Open Wounds arrow_upward



    Classification

    Causes

    Characteristics

    Puncture

    Penetrating pointed instruments such as nail etc.

    Deep and narrow, serious or slight bleeding

    Abrasion

    Scrapping or rubbing against rough surfaces

    Shallow, wide, oozing of blood, dirty

    Laceration

    Blunt instruments such as shrapnel’s, rocks

    Torn with irregular edges, serious or slight bleeding

    Avulsion

    Explosion, animal bites, mishandling of tools, etc.

    Tissue forcefully separated from the body

    Incision

    Sharp bladed instruments such as blades

    Clean cut, deep, severe bleeding, wound is clean



    First Aid for Open Wounds arrow_upward


  • A wound that is deep or is bleeding heavily should not be cleaned, as heavier bleeding may result.
  • The first step in care of a wound is to stop the bleeding, and seek prompt medical care.
  • Following guidelines should be used:
    • Locate the source of the bleeding
    • Wash hands and, when possible, wear gloves or use a barrier
    • Remove any loose debris
    • With a sterile or clean dressing, apply direct pressure
    • Unless a broken bone is suspected, elevate the injured area above the heart
  • General guidelines for cleaning and dressing a wound are as follows:
    • Thoroughly wash the wound with mild soap and rinse with running water
    • Remove any debris, if necessary
    • Bandage the wound with sterile covering, making sure to cover the entire wound
    • Adhere the bandage snugly, but do not cut off circulation
    • Wash hands properly after administering first aid
    • Watch for signs of the wound, such as swelling, redness, warmth, and oozing

    Closed Wounds arrow_upward


  • Blunt object that may result in contusion or bruises.
  • Most closed wounds are caused by external forces, such as falls and motor vehicle accidents.

  • Signs and Symptoms of Closed Wounds arrow_upward


  • Pain and tenderness
  • Swelling
  • Discoloration
  • Hematoma
  • Uncontrolled restlessness
  • Thirst
  • Symptoms of shock
  • Vomiting or cough-up blood
  • Passage of blood in the urine or feces
  • Sign of blood along mouth, nose and ear canal.

  • First Aid for Closed Wounds arrow_upward


  • Carefully examine the victim for fractures and other injuries.
  • If a closed fracture is suspected, immobilize the affected area before moving the victim.

  • First Aid Guidelines for Closed Wounds

  • I- Iced application
  • C- Compression
  • E- Elevation
  • S- Splinting

  •  Iced application

  • Cold reduces swelling, lessens pain, and minimizes bruising.
  • Cubed or crushed ice in a plastic bag, or an improvised cold pack such as a bag of frozen peas or a cloth pad soaked in cold water, can be applied directly on the injured area.

  • Compression

  • Compression of an injured extremity is done with an elastic roller bandage.
  • Compression helps prevent internal bleeding and swelling.

  • Elevation

  • Elevating an injured arm or leg also helps prevent swelling and control internal or external bleeding.

  • Splinting

  • Splinting helps prevent further injury, reduces pain, and minimizes bleeding and swelling.
  • Always splint an extremity before transporting the victim to a healthcare provider or emergency room.


  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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