Basic Measures and Tips of First Aid

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Chapter 2 : Basic Measures and Tips of First Aid

Basic Measures for First Aid arrow_upward

  • Safe practices and healthy choices at home, work and play can prevent many injuries, illnesses, diseases and deaths.
  • However, once injury or sudden illness has occurred, providing effective first aid can make the difference between
    • Life and death
    • Rapid versus prolonged recovery
    • Temporary versus permanent disability.

    First Aid General Guidelines arrow_upward

    Scene Safety

  • One of the critical skills for performing effective first aid is to ensure that the scene is safe for the victim as well as everyone else present.
  • All precautions have to be taken prior to administering the actual first aid.

  •  Help from Others

  • The chances of performing successful and effective first aid increase if there is more than one person assisting in emergency.
  • First Aid trained professional should make every effort to locate additional help in the vicinity of the incident.
    • Below are some general guidelines:
    • If the victim is responsive, introduce yourself and offer help
    • If the victim agrees proceed with First Aid administration
    • If person is unresponsive, assume that your help is needed and proceed with First Aid/CPR.

    How to Deal with an Emergency? arrow_upward

  • There are four steps of the emergency action principles to be taken to ensure safety as a rescuer as well as safety and survival of the victim
    • Survey the Scene
    • Primary survey of the victim
    • Contacting Emergency Medical Services (EMS)
    • Secondary survey of the victim.

    Survey the Scene arrow_upward

  • As a trained rescuer, it is imperative to assess the scene by observing for the following:
    • The Safety
    • Take a look around to ensure the surrounding area is safe for the rescuer as well as the victim.
    • The Type of Injury
    • This observation is important to understand the reason for sustained injury: automobile accident, electric shock, fall, fire, etc.
    • The Location
    • Make sure you are aware of your location to help emergency responders locate you.

    Primary Survey of the Victim arrow_upward

  • The primary survey of the victim is performed by checking the ABCs
    •  A- Airway
    •  B- Breathing
    •  C- Circulation
  • When performing the steps outlined below, check the condition of human's two most vital systems –
    • Respiratory system
    • Circulatory system


  • Open airway.
  • If unresponsive, tilt head-lift chin.

  • Breathing

  • Check breathing.
  • Look, listen and feel for at least 5 seconds, but no more than 10 seconds
    • Unresponsive, not breathing
    •  Perform CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)
    • Unresponsive, breathing normally
    • Place in recovery position


  • Look for and control severe bleeding with direct pressure.
  • Monitor tissue color and temperature.
  • Help maintain normal body temperature.

  • Contacting Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrow_upward

  • After performing the primary survey of the victim, it is important to contact EMS for help.
  • The call should be made either by the rescuer or any witnesses that are able to perform this step.
  • Be prepared to answer the following questions:
    • The actual location, be as specific as possible
    • Telephone number
    • Caller's name
    • The reason for the call
    • Number of victims
    • Condition of victim(s)
    • First Aid provided to the victim.

    Secondary Survey arrow_upward

  • The secondary survey of a victim is a check for injuries or other problems that may not be life threatening.

  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation arrow_upward

  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure which is performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest.
  • If a person's heart has stopped (cardiac arrest), Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, is needed to keep oxygen-carrying blood flowing from the lungs to the brain and heart until EMS arrives.
  • CPR

    Fig 1: Tilt the head back and lift the chin until the teeth almost touch. Look and listen for breathing

    Fig 2: If the person is not breathing, pinch the nose closed and cover the person’s mouth with yours. Give 2 full breaths

    Fig 3: Put your hands in the center of the person’s chest. Place one hand on top of the other

    Fig 4: Push down 30 times. Continue with 2 breaths then 30 pushes until medical help arrives or the person starts moving

  • There are three general symptoms that warrant immediate administration of CPR:
    • Victim is unconscious
    • Victim is not breathing
    • Victim has no pulse

    Basic First Aid Tips arrow_upward

  • When someone is injured or suddenly becomes ill, there is usually a critical period before medical treatment and it is this period that is of the utmost importance to the victim.
  • A few basic first aid tips to be considered:

  • Make sure household has a first aid kit
    • It should have basic medicines which are readily accessible

  • Keeps first aid kit, all medications, including non-prescription drugs out of children's reach.
  • Before assisting a victim, protect yourself first
    • Assess the scene and determine the prevalent hazards.
    • Whenever possible, wear gloves to protect yourself from blood and other bodily fluids.
  • When an emergency occurs
    • Make sure the tongue does not block the victim's airway and that the mouth is free of any secretions and foreign objects.
    • It's important that the person is breathing freely.
    • And if not, administer artificial respiration promptly.
  • See that the victim has a pulse and good blood circulation as you check for signs of bleeding:
    • Act fast if the victim is bleeding severely, swallowed poison or his heart or breathing has stopped.
  • It's vitally important not to move a person with serious neck or back injuries.
  • Have someone call for medical assistance while you apply first aid:
    • The person who calls the doctor should explain the nature of the emergency and ask for advice on what should be done by the time the ambulance arrives.
  • Be calm and give psychological support to the patient.
  • Don't give fluids to an unconscious or semiconscious person
    • Fluids may enter his windpipe and cause suffocation
    • Don't try to arouse an unconscious person by slapping or shaking
  • Look for an emergency medical identification card
    • To find out if the victim is allergic to medicines or has any serious health problems that require special care.

    Ten First Aid Misconceptions arrow_upward

  • Myth: Put butter or cream on a burn
  • Fact:
    • The only thing one should put on a burn is cold water
    • Put the affected area under cold running water for at least ten minutes
  • Myth: If you can’t move a limb, it must be broken
  • Fact:
    • The only accurate way to diagnose a broken limb is to x-ray it
    • If suspect a broken bone, try to support the injury with a cushion or items of clothing to prevent unnecessary movement
  • Myth: The best way to treat bleeding is to put the wound under a tap
  • Fact:
    • This will make it bleed more
    • Instead put pressure on the wound with whatever is available to stop or slow down the flow of blood
    • Keep pressure on the wound until help arrives
  • Myth: Nosebleeds are best treated by putting the head back
  • Fact:
    • If one put the head back during a nosebleed, all the blood goes down the back of the airway
    • Instead advise them to tilt their head forwards and ask the person to pinch the end of their nose and breathe through their mouth
  • Myth: If someone has swallowed a poison you should make them sick
  • Fact:
    • If you make someone sick by putting your fingers in their mouth, the vomit may block their airway
    • The best thing to do is get medical advice and find out what poison was taken, at what time and how much
  • Myth: If you perform CPR on someone whose heart is beating you can damage their heart
  • Fact:
    • It's difficult in emergency situations for non-medics to assess whether a person’s heart is beating
    • It isn’t dangerous to do chest compressions on a casualty whose heart is beating
  • Myth: You need lots of training to do first aid
  • Fact:
    • The most important need is common sense
    • Can learn enough first aid in a few minutes to save someone's life –
    • Whether it’s from a book
    • Attending a course
    • Watching videos online
  • Myth: Need lots of expensive equipment to do first aid
  • Fact:
    • There are lots of ways to improvise anything a person need.

    Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

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