Punctuation



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Chapter 8 : Punctuation



Punctuation Marks arrow_upward


  • Punctuation marks are symbols that indicate the structure and organization of written language, as well as intonation and pauses to be observed when reading aloud.

  • Mark

    Details

    Example

    Period

    (.)

    Ends a declarative or imperative sentence

    I live in Seattle.

    Question mark

    (?)

    Ends an interrogative sentence

    Do you live in Seattle?

    Exclamation mark

    (!)

    Ends an exclamatory sentence.

    Fantastic, we closed the deal!

    Comma

    (,)

    Separates items in a list.

    Usually used to separate three or more items.

    I like coffee, soda, milk, and tea

    Semi-colon

    (;)

    Used when two independent clauses in a sentence are not separated by a conjunction (“and”)

    I like pizza; Sheeza also likes pizza

    Colon

    (:)

    Precedes a list.

    Bring these things with you: a book, a toy, and a quarter.

    Hyphen

    (-)

    Used to join words.

    Separates syllables to make a word easier to read.

    Co-ordinate

    Ten-year-old

    Parentheses

    ( )

    Contains extra information.

    Mary (my sister) is coming to the party.

    Ellipsis

    (...)

    Shows that information is missing or deleted.

    “To be or not...the question.”

    Quotation marks

    (“ ”)

    Enclose the exact words of a person.

    Maria said, “Simply, the best”

    Slash

    (/)

    Indicates possibilities.

    Cold Water/Hot water


    Apostrophe

    (’)

    Substitute for a letter or letters.

    I’ll = I will

    Can’t = cannot

    Capital letters

    (A)

    Capitalize the first word in all sentences.

    Capitalize first letter of proper noun.

    Is this app cool or what?

    Examples:

    USA, John, Amazon



    Hyphen arrow_upward


  • A hyphen is used to join words.
    • My daughter is a Thirteen-year-old
    • Tom had a very high-profile date
  • Write out numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine
    • Thirty-five students
  • Show a word break at the end of a line
    • Only break between syllables: student

    Ellipses arrow_upward


  • Used to show that info has been left out in a quotation.
  • Leave a space before and after each period.

  • Original

    Updated

    I knew that I wanted to go on vacation, to Hawaii or Jamaica, but I cannot afford it.

    I knew that I wanted to go on vacation … but I cannot afford it.



    Parenthesis arrow_upward


  • Use parenthesis to set off extra information that is not essential.
    • My team’s favorite drink (provided by company) is coffee.

    Dashes arrow_upward


  • Use a dash to set off words for emphasis or to indicate a pause.
  • Created on computer by hitting the hyphen key twice.
    • CEO said that there will be no free applications —no exceptions.

    Capital Letters arrow_upward


  • Capitalize the first word in all sentences.
  • Capitalize first letter of proper noun.
  • Capitalize the first word of every complete quotation within quotation mark.
  • Capitalize names of celestial bodies: Mars, Saturn, and the Milky Way.
    • Do not capitalize earth, moon, and sun, except when those names appear in a context in which other (capitalized) celestial bodies are mentioned.
    • "I like it here on earth," but "It is further from Earth to Mars than it is from Mercury to the Sun.

    Proper use of an Apostrophe arrow_upward


  • The apostrophe (‘) is a punctuation mark.
  • Sometimes act as a diacritic mark, in languages that uses the Latin alphabet or certain other alphabets.
  • In English, it serves three purposes:
    • The marking of the omission of one or more letters.
    • Example: as in the contraction of do not = don't
    • The marking of possessive case
    • Example: as in the cat's whiskers
    • The marking as plural of written items that are not words established in English orthography.
    • Example: as in P's and Q's, the late 1950's
  • The use of the apostrophe to form plurals of proper words, as in apple's, banana's, etc., is universally considered incorrect.

  • Apostrophe is Different arrow_upward


  • The apostrophe is different from:
    • The closing single quotation mark (usually rendered identically but serving a different purpose)
    • The similar-looking prime (′), which is used to indicate measurement in feet or arc minutes.
    • The okina (ʻ), which represents a glottal stop in Polynesian languages, and as well as for various mathematical purposes.


    Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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