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Chapter 6 : Plurals

Plurals arrow_upward

  • Plurals are used to denote two or more of something, although they may also denote fractional, zero or negative amounts.
    • An example of a plural is the English word cats, which corresponds to the singular cat.
  • Most words become plural by adding s:
    • Chicken  Chickens
    • Book  Books
    • Kite  Kites

    Plurals with S, X, Z, CH, SH and SS: arrow_upward

  • If nouns end with certain letters like, (s, x, z, ch, sh and ss), we make the plural by adding –es.
    • Bush = Bushes
    • Address = Addresses

    Possessive forms arrow_upward

  • Singular nouns form the possessive by adding an apostrophe and s.
    • Pilot - Pilot's
  • Plural nouns that end in s add only an apostrophe to form the possessive.
    • Aviators - Aviators'
  • Plural nouns that do not end in s, add the apostrophe and s to form the possessive.
    • Men - Men's

    Use -es for words ending in s, ch, x, z: arrow_upward

  • Use -es for words ending in s , ch , x , z
    • Beach   Beaches
    • Fix   Fixes
    • Quiz  Quizzes

    Vowel + o arrow_upward

  • Words ending in a vowel + o become plural by adding s:
    • Rodeo  Rodeos
    • Duo  Duos

    Consonant + o arrow_upward

  • Words ending in a consonant + o become plural by adding es:
    • Tomato   Tomatoes
    • Hero   Heroes


    Words that end in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ or ‘ff’ or ‘ffe’ arrow_upward

  • Many words that end in f or fe become plural with ves:
    • Leaf   Leaves
    • Life  Lives
    • Knife  Knives
  • Words that end in ff or ffe become plural with just an s.
    • Knockoff  Knockoffs
    • Giraffe  Giraffes

    Irregular and Foreign Nouns arrow_upward

  • Irregular Nouns:
    • Goose = Geese
    • Foot = Feet
    • Tooth = Teeth
    • Mouse = Mice
    • Deer = Deer
    • Sheep = Sheep
    • Child = Children

  • Foreign nouns:
    • Analysis = Analyses
    • Datum = Data
    • Phenomenon = Phenomena
    • Appendix = Appendices

    Compound Words        arrow_upward

  • A compound word is a word that is composed of two or more separate words that are combined to make a new word.
  • Add an –s to the main or principal word if the compound is hyphenated.
  • If there is no hyphenation, we make the last word plural.
    • Spoonful = Spoonfuls
    • Stepchild = Stepchildren
    • Brother-in-law = Brothers-in-law

    Plurals with Word Ending in Y arrow_upward

  • In the case of –y, if the noun ends with a –y and is preceded by a vowel, you simply add –s
    • Attorney = Attorneys
  • If the noun ends with –y but is preceded by a consonant, the –y is usually changed to –i and –es is added
    • Cherry = Cherries
  • With proper names ending with -y, you simply add an –s
    • Gary = Garys

    Plurals with word ending in O arrow_upward

  • When a noun ends with –o that’s preceded with a vowel, make it plural by adding an –s.
  • Some nouns end with –o and are preceded with a consonant; those are made plural by adding –es.
    • Potato = Potatoes

    Nouns that have only a plural form arrow_upward

  • Things that come in pairs:
    • Glasses
    • Scissors
    • Jeans
    • Pants
  • Nouns that end in -s but have no singular (aggregate nouns).
    • Archives
    • Arms
    • Thanks
    • Goods
  • Nouns that are plural but do not end in -s
    • People
    • Police
    • Cattle

    Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

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