Ebola Virus Disease



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Chapter 1 : Ebola Virus Disease



Key Facts arrow_upward


  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
  • The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
  • The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks.
  • The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa, near tropical rainforests, but the most recent outbreak in west Africa has involved major urban as well as rural areas.
  • Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation.
  • Early supportive care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralise the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.
  • There are currently no licensed Ebola vaccines but 2 potential candidates are undergoing evaluation.

  • Background arrow_upward


  • The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
  • The current outbreak in west Africa, (first cases notified in March 2014), is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976.
  • There have been more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It has also spread between countries starting in Guinea then spreading across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia, by air (1 traveller only) to Nigeria, and by land (1 traveller) to Senegal.
  • The most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources, having only recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.
  • On August 8, the WHO Director-General declared this outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
  • A separate, unrelated Ebola outbreak began in Boende, Equateur, an isolated part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  • The Virus Family arrow_upward


  • The virus family Filoviridae includes 3 genera:
  • Cuevavirus
  • Marburgvirus
  • Ebolavirus.
  • There are 5 species of ebola virus that have been identified:
  • Zaire
  • Bundibugyo
  • Sudan
  • Reston
  • Ta├» Forest.
  • The first 3, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Sudan ebolavirus have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa.
  • The virus causing the 2014 West African outbreak belongs to the Zaire species.

  • Transmission arrow_upward


  • It is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts.
    • Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
  • Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing) contaminated with these fluids.
  • Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.
  • Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola.
  • People remain infectious as long as their blood and body fluids, including semen and breast milk, contain the virus. Men who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness

  • Symptoms of Ebola virus disease arrow_upward


  • The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to onset of symptoms is 2 to 21 days.
  • Humans are not infectious until they develop symptoms. First symptoms are the sudden onset of fever fatigue, muscle pain, headache and sore throat.
  • This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding (e.g. oozing from the gums, blood in the stools).
  • Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.

  • Diagnosis arrow_upward


  • It can be difficult to distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis.
  • Confirmation that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection are made using the following investigations:
    • Antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
    • Antigen-capture detection tests
    • Serum neutralization test
    • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
    • Electron microscopy
    • Virus isolation by cell culture.
  • Samples from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; laboratory testing on non-inactivated samples should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions.

  • Treatment and Vaccines arrow_upward


  • Supportive care-rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids- and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival.
  • There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of potential treatments including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated.
  • No licensed vaccines are available yet, but 2 potential vaccines are undergoing human safety testing.

  • Prevention and control arrow_upward


  • Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation.
  • Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks.
  • Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission.
  • Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors:
    • Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat. Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
    • Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home. Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home.
    • Outbreak containment measures including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola, monitoring the health of contacts for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.


    Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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