Type I and Type II Diabetes



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Chapter 3 : Type I and Type II Diabetes



Type-I Diabetes arrow_upward


  • Type I Diabetes is a disease in which the body produces too little insulin or no insulin at all.
  • Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease, that is, a condition in which the body’s disease-fighting immune system goes away and attacks healthy tissues.
  • In the case of Type I diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.
  • Type I diabetes was formerly referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).
  • In addition to causing a buildup of glucose in the blood, untreated Type I diabetes affects the metabolism of fat.
  • Because the body cannot convert glucose into energy, it begins to break down stored fat for fuel.
  • This produces increasing amounts of acidic compounds in the blood called Ketone bodies, which interfere with cellular respiration, the energy-producing process in cells.
  • Type I accounts for 5-10% of the population with diabetes.

  • Type I Diabetes: Symptoms arrow_upward


  • Increased production of urine (because the body tries to get rid of the excess glucose in the urine, diluting it with water)
  • Excessive thirst
  • Fatigue (because the glucose is not being converted into energy)
  • Loss of weight
  • Increased appetite
  • Feeling sick
  • Blurred vision
  • Infections such as thrush or irritation of the genitals
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Rapid breathing
  • Increased pulse rate
  • Sleepiness
  • If type I diabetes is not treated at this stage, the body begins to produce chemicals called ketones that build up in the blood
  • Without treatment, diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma or death

  • Signs and tests arrow_upward


  • Urinalysis shows glucose and ketone bodies in the urine, but a blood test is required for diagnosis.
  • Fasting blood glucose is 126 mg/dl or higher.
  • Random (non-fasting) blood glucose exceeds 200 mg/dl (this must be confirmed with a fasting test).
  • Insulin test (low or undetectable level of insulin)
  • C-peptide test (low or undetectable level of the protein C-peptide, a by-product of insulin production)

  • Type I Diabetes: Prevention arrow_upward


  • Currently there is no way to prevent Type I diabetes, but ongoing studies are exploring ways to prevent diabetes in those who are most likely to develop it.
  • People with Type I diabetes can help prevent or delay the development of complications by keeping their blood sugar in a target range.
  • People also need regular medical checkups to detect early signs of complications. If complications are treated early, the damage may be stopped, slowed, or possibly reversed.

  • Type I Diabetes: Precautions arrow_upward


  • There is no permanent one time cure of Type I diabetes, but a patient can lead an almost normal life by taking a few precautions:
    • Eating a balanced diet
    • Keeping a check on the blood glucose with the help of a blood glucose monitor
    • By injecting insulin daily

    Type-II Diabetes arrow_upward


  • Type II Diabetes is a disease that generally develops over a period of years.
  • People who eventually develop this disease are insulin resistant several years before their blood sugars become abnormal.
  • Their bodies try to make up for the higher insulin needs to be created by insulin resistance by producing more insulin.
  • Over the years, this eventually begins to have a negative effect.
  • The pancreas gradually begins to lose its ability to produce the extra insulin needed to overcome insulin resistance.
  • As body insulin level falls, blood sugar begins to rise.
  • It is also termed as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

  • Type II Diabetes: Illustration arrow_upward


    The 2nd illustration shows:

  • Step 1: The stomach converts food into glucose that enters into the blood stream.
  • Step 2: Pancreas produces sufficient amount of insulin.
  • Step 3: The Liver is resistant to the effects of insulin.
  • Step 4: Glucose can’t get into the body cells. Glucose level gets increased in the blood stream.

  • Type II Diabetes: Causes arrow_upward


  • Type II diabetes and the insulin resistance that causes it have a strong genetic basis and are made worse by environmental factors including:
    • Inactivity
    • Weight gain
    • Stress
  • Most people are overweight at the time their Type II diabetes is discovered.
  • Being more active or losing weight may help prevent or delay the development of diabetes.
  • Type II diabetes was once called "Adult-onset Diabetes" but this term is no longer used because it is inaccurate.
  • Type II diabetes is on the increase in all age groups, even among children of high school and grade school age.

  • Who gets Type II Diabetes? arrow_upward


  • This disease can be inherited by genes as well.
  • Not everyone that eats a lot of sugar and is overweight have the disease.
  • Risk factors:
    • People who are overweight
    • Have a parent or sibling with diabetes
    • Are 40 years of age
    • Have high blood pressure
    • Had diabetes during pregnancy
    • Have the stress of an illness or injury
    • Had a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds at birth

    Type II Diabetes: Treatment arrow_upward


  • Type II diabetes can often be controlled effectively:
    • By becoming more active
    • By managing food to reduce the body's need for insulin
    • This may involve promoting a modest amount of weight loss
    • Controlling and distributing carbohydrate intake throughout the day

    Diet Planning arrow_upward


  • A healthy diet must be followed with Type II diabetes to keep your sugar levels maintained. This may include:
  • Fruits and vegetables
    • Apples
    • Bananas
    • Broccoli
    • Spinach
  • Whole grain, cereals, and bread
    • Wheat
    • Barley
    • Rice
    • Bran
  • Dairy products
    • Yogurt
    • Skim milk
    • Cream
  • Meat
    • Fish
  • Poultry
    • Eggs
  • Dried beans


  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


  • Please email us at Admin@Kimavi.com and help us improve this tutorial.


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