Introduction to Diabetes



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Chapter 1 : Introduction to Diabetes



Introduction to Diabetes arrow_upward


  • Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which a person has high blood sugar.
  • It is essentially due to one of following conditions:
    • The body does not produce enough insulin
    • Cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced
  • In the United States, 20+ million people suffer from diabetes mellitus.
  • Symptoms include:
    • Frequent urination
    • Increased thirst
    • Increased hunger
  • Risk for developing Type II Diabetes increases by 4 percent for every pound of excess weight a person carries.
    • The best strategy to avoid diabetes (Type II) is to maintain a healthy body weight.

    Diabetes in simple terms arrow_upward


  • Diabetes is due to:
    • Lack of Insulin
    • Insulin doesn’t work properly
  • Insulin (hormone) allows cells to use glucose for energy.
  • Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin.
  • Excess glucose builds up in the bloodstream, increasing the risk of diabetes.

  • Symptoms arrow_upward


  • Polyphagia - excessive eating
  • Polyuria - excessive urination
  • Polydipsia - excessive fluid intake
  • Blurred vision
  • Poor wound healing
  • Irritability
  • Dramatic weight loss
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting

  • How Diabetes works? arrow_upward


  • In diabetes mellitus, low insulin levels or poor response to insulin prevent cells from absorbing glucose:
    • As a result, glucose builds up in the blood
    • When glucose-laden blood passes through the kidneys, the organs that remove blood impurities, the kidneys cannot absorb all of the excess glucose.
  • This excess glucose spills into the urine, accompanied by water and electrolytes—ions required by cells to regulate the electric charge and flow of water molecules across the cell membrane.
  • This causes frequent urination to get rid of the additional water drawn into the urine; excessive thirst to trigger replacement of lost water; and hunger to replace the glucose lost in urination.

  • Anatomy of Diabetes arrow_upward


  • Pancreas is a gland that lies behind the stomach.
  • It produces three hormones:
    • Insulin- Hormone that lowers blood glucose
    • Glucagon - Hormone that increases the amount of glucose in the blood when it is needed 
    • Somatostatin - Hormone that can suppress both glucagon and insulin when needed
  • It lies on the left side of the body.

  • Insulin arrow_upward


  • Insulin is a hormone.
  • Insulin is secreted by groups of cells within the pancreas.
  • Insulin controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood.
  • In 1922 a team of scientists at the University of Toronto in Canada discovered that the hormone insulin could be used to control the effects of diabetes.
  • Although not a cure for diabetes, insulin regulates levels of blood sugar, allowing people with diabetes to remain in good health.

  • Insulin Resistance arrow_upward


  • When the total amount of insulin produced by the body (pancreas), proves to be insufficient to maintain normal blood glucose level

  • How does Insulin work? arrow_upward


  • A person normally secretes insulin in response to an elevated blood sugar level.
  • Insulin helps sugar move out of the blood and into the cells.
  • Insulin decreases the body’s ability to make certain kinds of fats.

  • Why body is not making insulin? arrow_upward


  • Type I
    • The immune system attacks the beta cells and destroys them
  • Type II
    • The pancreas is still making insulin, just not enough to keep up, or the body has become insulin resistant

    Type of diabetes arrow_upward


  • Type I - body does not produce any insulin
  • Type II - body is not making enough insulin or is losing sensitivity to insulin made
  • Gestational Diabetes - diabetes develops only during pregnancy
  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance - an intermediate between healthy individual and a diabetic individual

  • Diabetes Mellitus vs. Diabetes Insipidus arrow_upward


  • Diabetes Mellitus is caused by the lack of hormone, insulin, which controls the sugar (glucose) levels in the body.
  • Diabetes Insipidus is caused by the lack of hormone vasopressin, which controls the amount of urine secreted.

  • Prevalence of diabetes arrow_upward


  • Diabetes is most common in adults over 45 years of age
  • In people who are overweight or physically inactive
  • In individuals who have an immediate family member with diabetes
  • In people of African, Hispanic, and Native American descent
  • The highest rate of diabetes in the world occurs in Native Americans
  • More women than men have been diagnosed with the disease

  • Diagnosis arrow_upward


  • Fasting plasma glucose in (mg/dl)
    • Healthy = under 100
    • Pre-diabetes = 100-125
    • Diabetes = 125 or higher

    To confirm diabetes arrow_upward


  • Person must have symptoms of diabetes
    • Random plasma glucose >200 mg/dl
    • Fasting blood glucose of >126 mg/dl
    • 2-hour plasma glucose >200 mg/dl on oral glucose tolerance test

    Impact of Diabetes arrow_upward


  • Complications may affect following organs:
    • Blood Vessels and Heart
    • Eyes
    • Kidney
    • Nerves
    • Skin 
    • Blood

    Diabetic Diet arrow_upward


  • A diabetic diet is no different from the basic healthy eating plan.
  • In simple words, eat balanced diet of carbohydrates, fats and protein.
  • Eat less.
  • Instead of 3 heavy meals, go for 4-5 small mid intervals.
  • Consume fresh fruit and vegetables.

  • Diabetic Life style arrow_upward


  • An exercise goal is no different than a basic healthy activity plan.
  • In simple words, exercise daily for 30 min.

  • Impact of diabetes in USA arrow_upward


  • 20+ million children and adults
  • 7% of the population
  • 15 million = diagnosed
  • 6+ million = unaware
  • About equal in men and women
  • 2 to 4 times higher in non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic/Latino American, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific than non-Hispanic whites
  • 5th deadliest disease in the U.S.


  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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