Types of Communication



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Chapter 2 : Types of Communication



Types of Communication arrow_upward


  • There are mainly two types of communication:
    • Verbal Communication
    • Non-verbal Communication


    Verbal Communication

  • Verbal communication includes:
    • Sounds
    • Words
    • Language
    • Speaking
  • Language is said to have originated from sounds and gestures.

  • Non-Verbal Communication

  • Non-verbal communication involves physical ways of communication like:
    • Tone of voice
    • Touch
    • Smell
    • Body motion
  • Body language is a non-verbal way of communication.

  • Types of Verbal Communication arrow_upward



    Oral Communication

  • Oral Communication is information spoken by mouth.
  • Some of the examples of Oral Communication are as follows:
    • Face to Face Communication
    • Telephonic Communication
    • Speech
    • Audio & Visual Media
    • Lectures
    • Conference-Interchange of views
    • Meetings
    • Cultural Affairs

    Written Communication

  • Communication by means of written symbols (either printed or handwritten)
  • Some of the examples of written communication are as follows
    • Orders
    • Instructions
    • Letters
    • Memos
    • Reports
    • Policy manuals
    • Information Bulletin
    • Complaint System
    • Suggestion System

    Types of Nonverbal Communication arrow_upward



    Body Language

  • It includes
    • Facial expression
    • Eye contact
    • Postures
    • Gestures
    • Touch

    Expressive Behavior

  • Sign Language is a language which, instead of conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns.
    • Example: The following figure expresses that something is good


    Types of Communication based on Style and Purpose arrow_upward


  • Formal/Informal
    • Official/unofficial information exchange
  • Vertical/Horizontal
    • Superior-subordinate/peers
  • Personal/Impersonal
    • Situation of mutual influence/exchange without mutual influence
  • Instrumental/Expressive
    • Necessary for job/non-job information (transmission)

    Formal Communication arrow_upward


  • Formal Communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format.
    • This can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication.
    • The style of communication in this form is very formal and official.
    • Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication.
    • Formal communication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent and rigid tone to it.
  • Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time.

  • Informal Communication arrow_upward


  • Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other.
  • Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family.
  • Informal communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines.
  • Informal conversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter.
  • The two or more parties in concern should understand a common language or method of communication.
  • There are no strong rules or guidelines.
  • The only rule is that all the parties should be able to understand each other.

  • Vertical Communication arrow_upward


  • It is a communication between those who are on different levels of authority within the company. For examples
    • Manager to Employee
    • General Manager to Managers
    • Foreman to Machine Operator
    • Head of the Department to Cashiers

    Horizontal Communication arrow_upward


  • It is a communication between people on the same level of authority.
  • Like, in an organizational chart, one communicates horizontally with people of same 'authority' with similar 'power' or grade or pay band

  • Personal and Impersonal Communication arrow_upward


  • Personal Communication is a situation of mutual communication.
  • Impersonal Communication is the exchange of information without personal communication.

  • Instrumental and Expressive Communication arrow_upward


  • Instrumental Communication
    • Instrumental communication is necessary for accomplishing tasks related to organizational goals.
    • Instrumental communication may inform about a person's competence and reassure us that the person follows the organizational rules.
  • Expressive Communication is an unofficial type of communication.

  • Types of Business Communication arrow_upward


  • There are two types of business communication in an organization
    • Internal Communication
    • External Communication

    Internal Communication arrow_upward


  • Communication within an organization is called “Internal Communication.”
    • It includes all communication within an organization.
    • It may be an informal or a formal function or department providing communication in various forms to employees.
    •  Effective internal communication is a vital means of addressing organizational concerns.
  • Internal Business Communication includes:

  • Upward Communication

  • It is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors or from employees to management.

  • Downward Communication

  • Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies).

  • Horizontal/Literal Communication

  • It normally involves coordinating information and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate.

  • External Communication arrow_upward


  • Communication with people outside the company
  • Supervisors communicate with sources outside the organization, such as vendors and customers


  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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