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Chapter 1 : Introduction

Communication arrow_upward

  • Communication: Way of expressing thoughts and feelings
  • Skill: An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate
  • Communication is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another.
  • Communication is the process of meaningful interaction among human beings.
  • Communication is a process that involves exchange of information, thoughts, ideas and emotions.

  • Purpose of Communication arrow_upward

  • The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others clearly and unambiguously.
  • Communication involves effort from both the sender of the message and the receiver.
  • Communication is successful only when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information as a result of the communication.

  • Model of Communication arrow_upward

  • Communication should be a two way process
  • Information in its most restricted technical sense is an ordered sequence of symbols that record or transmit a message.
  • Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as:
    • A person, situation or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object
  • Decision is the selection between possible actions.
  • Result (also called Upshot) is the final consequence of a sequence of actions or events expressed qualitatively or quantitatively.

  • Components of Communication arrow_upward

  • Context- Every message, whether oral or written, begins with context
    • Internal Means
    • External Means


  • The message may be in the form of
    • Order
    • Opinion
    • Advice
    • Suggestion
    • Instruction
    • Question answer or material

    Encoder (Sender)

  • Sender is the person who communicates the idea, information, material etc.
  • He/she acts in the capacity of the speaker, writer, or encoder
    • The message he/she intends to send
    • The message he/she actually sends
    • The message other person receives or understands
    • The other person’s interpretation of the message
    • The other person’s response


  • Medium of communication includes:
    • Letters
    • Reports
    • Telegrams
    • Fax
    • Mailgrams
    • Cables
    • Telefax
    • Postal
    • Telephones
    • Charts
    • Pictures or any other mechanical device

    Receiver (Decoder)

  • The receiver is the decoder
    • He/she when receives message decodes it or interprets the message


  • Feedback can be an oral or a written message
    • An action or simply a silence

    Types of Communication arrow_upward

  • There are mainly two types of communication
    • Verbal Communication
    • Non-verbal Communication

    Verbal Communication arrow_upward

  • Verbal communication is communication that uses words either written or spoken.

  • Oral Communication

  • "Oral" means "with your mouth", so "Oral Communication" means to communicate by talking

  • Written Communication

  • Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written word

  • Non-verbal Communication arrow_upward

  • Non-verbal communication is behavior, other than spoken or written communication, that creates or represents meaning.

  • Body Language

  • Body language refers to body movements that depend on a person’s attitude or feelings.
  • Expressive Behavior

  • Gestures are communications like facial expressions, hand signals, eye gazing and body postures.

  • Methods of Communication arrow_upward

  • Communication occurs in the context of people trying to fulfill one or several of the following six needs:
    • To feel respected
    • To give or get information
    • To be empathically understood and respected
    • To cause change of action
    • To create excitement and reduce boredom
    • To avoid something unpleasant, like silence or confrontation

    Four Basic Methods of Communication arrow_upward

  • Listening Skills
  • Speaking Skills
  • Reading Skills
  • Writing Skills

  • Listening Skills arrow_upward

  • “Listening is the act of hearing attentively.”
  • Listening is difficult as human mind tends to get distracted easily.
  • A person who controls his mind and listens attentively acquires various other skills and is benefited.
  • Active listening is very important for effective communication.

  • Speaking Skills arrow_upward

  • Speaking is a productive skill; it is an art of communication.
  • Good speaking is the act of generating words that can be understood by listeners.
  • A good speaker is clear and informative.

  • Reading Skills arrow_upward

  • Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader
    • To read the written form in a meaningful language
    • To read anything written with independence, comprehension and fluency
    • To mentally interact with the message

    Writing Skills arrow_upward

  • Writing skills are specific abilities which help writers put their thoughts into words in a meaningful form and to mentally interact with the message.

  • Advantages of Communication arrow_upward

  • Increases productivity
  • Reduces stress
  • Better understanding of what others are saying
  • Better understanding of how to get your message across
  • Enhances relationships
  • Saves time and money

  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward

  • Please email us at and help us improve this tutorial.

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